Since 2006, several communities, four states, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico have enacted laws to prevent smoking in cars when children are present.
When someone smokes in the small enclosed space of a car, people are exposed to toxic air that is many times higher than what the EPA considers hazardous air quality, even when a window is down. Additionally, the gaseous and particulate components of tobacco smoke absorb into the upholstery and other surfaces inside a car, and then off-gas back into the air over the course of many days, exposing passengers to toxins long after anyone actually smoked in the car.
Because a law, by itself, is unlikely to eliminate secondhand smoke exposure in cars, we recommend that any smokefree car campaign be accompanied by a strong education effort, stressing the health hazards of smoke-filled vehicles. Campaigns for smokefree car laws can serve as a tool to educate the public about the health hazards of secondhand smoke exposure and improve decision making about smoking in ways that harm other people.
U.S. State / Commonwealth
Persons < than age 6 and under 60 pounds in a child safety seat. Effective
|California||Persons < age 18||01/01/2008|
|Louisiana||Persons < age 13||08/15/2006|
|Maine||Persons < age 16||09/01/2008|
|Oregon||Persons < age 18. The Legislature enacted SB444, which prohibits smoking in any motor vehicle in which a child under age 18 is a passenger. Enacted 6/11/2013 as Chapter 361 2013 Laws.||01/01/2014|
|Puerto Rico||Persons < age 13||03/02/2007|
|Utah||Persons < age 16||07/01/2014|
|Vermont||Persons aged 8 and under||07/01/2014|
|Virginia||Persons < age 8||07/01/2016|
Smokefree News | Related Research
it illegal to smoke in a car around children? Yes...and no
you for not smoking with minors in car
ban in cars with children on Gov. McAuliffe's desk
Smoking Ban in Car With Children
Risk Increases By Cigarette Smoke Lingering In Homes, Cars
Senate passes bill to penalize smoking while children are in car
old tobacco state moves to ban smoking in cars with kids on board
Professionals Back Ban On Smoking In Cars With Kids
There: By taking aim at smokers in cars, lawmakers may be ...
Seeks To Pass Anti-Smoking Law for Children [VIDEO]
Dougherty: First, smoking in the car. What's next: Smoking in your own
in a car with a young child could soon bring $100 fine
task force recommends banning smoking in cars with kids [VIDEO]
Task force to decide on law banning smoking in cars with kids
task force to decide on law banning smoking in cars
State of the Week: Connecticut may outlaw smoking in many cars
Smoking ban in cars: When sharing isn't caring
Study Ban On Smoking in Cars Carrying Children
Lawmaker wants ban on smoking in car with child
Connecticut lawmakers should leave car smoking ban to parents
The proposed measure would ban smoking in a vehicle in which a child is present and heap fines on mothers and fathers, grandparents and anyone else who ...
on smoking in vehicles carrying minors considered
on smoking in vehicles carrying minors considered
to discuss smoking in cars with children present
task force tackles issue of smoking in cars with minors ...
Other Vehicular Activities Do Statists Intend To Ban?
it illegal to smoke in cars?
in car leads to Facebook debate
to ban smoking in cars with pregnant women
kids from second-hand smoke
bans smoking in cars carrying children
Parliament backs ban on smoking in cars with children
smoking ban: Can you vape at the wheel with a child passenger
Smoking Ban Takes Effect in the U.K.
bans smoking in cars with children inside
smoking ban protects children in cars
about new law making it illegal to smoke in a car around children?
ban on smoking in some vehicles sparks controversy
Should smoking in cars with children be illegal in Ohio?
panel OKs bill banning smoking in vehicles when kids present
would fine drivers for smoking in vehicles with minors
react to proposed east coast smoking bill [VIDEO]
seeks to ban smoking in car with kids
bill introduced to ticket drivers smoking with children in vehicle
drivers who smoke with kids in car could face fines
Where there's smoke there's fine
approves fines for smoking in cars with kids [VIDEO]
Passes Ban On Smoking With Kids In Car
Regulating In-Car Smoking in Illinois Fails
Could Be First AZ City to Ban Smoking with Kids in Car
in cars ban fails in Senate
weighs ban on smoking while children are in car [VIDEO]
anti-smoking bill has support, but some worry about practicality
Where there's smoke ...
group's goal: Don't smoke in the car
Would Ban Smoking In Cars With Children
Smoking Ban Is Unenforceable Overreach
moving to ban smoking in cars with children inside
banning smoking in car with kids moves forward
little too much
bills would ban smoking in cars with young children, restrict vaporized
would prevent smoking in cars with children
in cars with kids could be fined in Tempe
officials favor Nevada bill to ban smoking in cars with children
bill proposes fines for drivers who smoke with kids in the car [VIDEO]
Would Ban Smoking in Cars With Children Present
would bar drivers from smoking in cars with minors
Support Given For Smoking Ban In Cars With Children
in Cars with Kids Could Cost You
to stop smoking while kids in cars passes Senate
ban bill safeguards kids
mull ban on smoking in cars with children
cars act heads to Senate floor
Police Will Be Good Soldiers if New Anti-Smoking Law Passes
Smoking and choking go hand in hand for kids in cars
lawmakers considering a smoking ban in cars
Sen. Jeff Clemens wants to ban smoking in vehicles with ...
To Hold Hearing Prohibiting Smoking In Car With Minors
Smokefree Cars for Children Act Has Bipartisan Support
Hampshire Bill Would Ban Car Smoking With ...
smoke affects nonsmokers in vehicles
in cars are exposed to significant amounts of second-hand smoke
Ann Hounchell: Smoking, cars and children
Banned in Cars with Little Kids
cites highlights of the 2014 legislative session
shows exposure to smoke in cars may worsen asthma
students craft bill to limit smoking in cars in Connecticut
banning smoking in cars with kids clears latest hurdle
bill bans smoking with kids in car, considers raising tobacco ...
bill would ban smoking with children in car
back smoking ban in cars
ban in cars is a waste of time
look to limit smoking in cars
lawmaker wants ban on smoking in cars with kids
House Bill Would Ban Smoking In Vehicle If Kids Are Present
smoking ban next?
smoking with kids in the car in NJ: Editorial
targets smoking in vehicle with young kids
adults support smoking ban in cars with kids
on smoking in cars with kids deemed a success
ban on smoking in cars with kids largely unenforced
bans smoking in cars with kids
Oregon drivers caught smoking in cars with kids may face hefty fines under a new state law. Gov. John Kitzhaber signed into law on Tuesday a bill that prohibits ...
House OKs ban on smoking in cars with kids
on smoking in cars with kids heads to Oregon governor
Lawmakers Vote To Ban Smoking In Cars With Children Present
majority of adults have smoke-free rules in homes, vehicles
recommendation approved by House, but ban lacks movement
OKs Ban on Smoking in Cars With Young Kids
Senate Passes Bill To Prohibit Smoking In Cars With Minors
on smoking in cars with kids headed to governor
opposition, bill prohibiting smoking in car with kids passes house
smoking ban clears committee
in cars bill advances with opposition building
Supports Bill Banning Smoking In Cars With Kids
Hovde: Should we fine smoking drivers or just butt out?
Smoking In Cars With Kids? Can't Outlaw Stupidity
ban proposed for drivers with kids
Ban? Here's Where Cigarettes Are Still Allowed
in on Proposed Smoking Ban
ban proposed for drivers with kids
lawmaker mulls smoking ban in cars with children
on smoking in cars dies
Senate Bill would ban smoking in vehicle with underage passengers
OKs bill that bans smoking in cars with kids present
on smoking in cars dies in house
passes ban on smoking with kids in car
Bills Would Ban
Smoking in Cars with Kids
In our opinion: A bill against smoking in the car unlikely to result
in fewer incidents
car-smoking ban pass this time around?
lawmakers may consider ban on smoking in cars with children
Smoke Exposure Common In Cars
ten minutes in a car with a smoker boosts harmful pollutants by up to
making another attempt at prohibiting smoking in cars ...
bill would ban smoking when kids are in cars
A Rhode Island state senator wants to add to the list of places people
cant smoke in cars when children are present. South Kingstown
Democrat V. Susan Sosnowski says the goal is to protect children from
harmful second-hand smoke.
The Senate Health and Human Services Committee approved a bill on Wednesday that would make it illegal to smoke in a car when children are present.
to restrict smoking nearly snuffed out in Md.
Proposed smoking restrictions aren't catching fire in Annapolis as the Maryland General Assembly reaches the final weeks of a 90-day session. A bill to keep adults from smoking with children in the car went nowhere. Another that would declare smoking a nuisance in condos, townhomes and apartment buildings -- effectively banning smoking if a resident made a complaint -- also ran into trouble. Another that would declare smoking a nuisance in condos, townhomes and apartment buildings -- effectively banning smoking if a resident made a complaint
ban in vehicles with children passes Senate
A controversial bill that would ban smoking in any vehicle with a passenger younger than 8 passed the state Senate 27-19 on Wednesday after debate that centered largely over the role of government.
legislator wants to ban smoking in cars carrying children
Arkansas bans smoking in cars when children under 14 are present. Louisiana, Puerto Rico, California and Maine also have similar laws. Jennie Forehand, a Democrat from Montgomery County, who has worked to ban smoking in public places, tried last year to pass a law banning smoking in cars ...
would ban smoking in car with child under 8
By Michael Dresser, The Baltimore Sun A bill has emerged from a Senate committee that would prohibit a driver from smoking or allowing a passenger to smoke ...
Legislators Call for Smoking Ban in Cars with Minors
Toby Stavisky, D-Whitestone, and state Assemblyman David Weprin, D-Little Neck, are calling for the state to prohibit smoking in vehicles in which minors ...
ban going back to the Augusta Commission with potential tweaks
... The proposed ordinance would also ban smoking in a vehicle with
children 14 and younger, as Arkansas and California do. ...
proposed to ban smoking
would restrict smoking in cars
Arguing that a child has no way to escape the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, a Columbus Democrat told a Senate committee yesterday that it's time for Ohio to ban smoking in vehicles with passengers younger than 6. ...
Carolina considers smoking ban in cars with kids
Specifically, they had a lot to type about a smoking ban bill being brought up for a second time in South Carolina. If passed, the bill would make it a
smoking ban in effect July 2
It's a first for a city in Alberta: soon drivers in Leduc won't be
allowed to smoke in a car while children are inside. ...
David Weprin pushes to ban smoking in car with kids
Lighting up with a kid in the car could soon cost you $100. ...
South Carolina bill aims to ban smoking in car with kids
held captive in smoky vehicles
Parents who smoked were asked if they had a car, whether they had smoking rules in their car, their child's age and if their pediatrician advised them to have a smoke-free car. Parents were considered to have a strictly enforced carsmoking ban if they ..
Highlights Need For Smoke-Free Car Laws, Public Health Campaigns To
Protect Youngsters From Toxins
It is absolutely unacceptable to subject children to any tobacco smoke exposure in cars, according to the authors of an abstract to be presented Sunday, May 1, at the Pediatric Academic Societies (PAS) annual meeting in Denver.
car-smoking bill falls short
lawmakers stop bill barring smoking around kids
A South Carolina proposal to fine drivers or passengers who puff away
with a child under 6 in the car is going nowhere.
Free Cars Law now helps more minors
bill would ban smoking in cars with kids
smoking in cars only way to protect children
STARTLING research today reveals children are still breathing in harmful particles in cigarette smoke in a car even when adults aren't smoking.
A Welsh study reveals high levels of particulate matter (PM) from tobacco smoke is present in the back seat of cars for up to two hours after a cigarette has been smoked. ...
VIEW Smoking in cars is toxic for kids
on smoking in car with children could change
Senate Bill 1004 to go before House Wednesday afternoon that wants
to change the law regarding smoking in cars with children. ...
York Lawmakers Propose Car Smoking Ban
NEW YORK Two New York legislators are proposing a bill that would ban smoking in a car when a minor is present, NBC New York reports.
Introduced in Nassau County, the ban would make it illegal to smoke
in a car if someone under the age of 18 is present, with violators subject
to a $1,000 fine ...
OKs bill that would make it illegal to smoke in cars with kids present
The House passed a bill late Monday evening that would make it illegal
for adults to smoke in cars when children are present. ...
takes another run at banning smoking with kids in the car
bill would target smokers in cars with children
Smoking in a vehicle where a child under 17 is present would be illegal under a bill filed by House Speaker Greg Stumbo.
A person in a vehicle with a child could not smoke "cigars, cigarettes or other tobacco in any form" under House Bill 216. ...
would ban smoking in cars around kids
After being banished from bars, doorways and a growing number of smoke-free apartment buildings, smokers may find one of their last refuges -- their car -- off-limits too.
A bill (SB5106) introduced by Sen. Scott White, D-Seattle, would prohibit smoking in a parked or moving car if children are present. The act would be considered a secondary traffic violation, enforced only when a driver has been stopped for another offense. The infraction would not go on a driver's record.
The Legislature considered similar measures in 2008, but did not pass
them into law. ...
in cars with kids will soon be illegal
People who smoke in cars that have kids as passengers will be breaking Saskatchewan law as of Oct. 1, as provisions under The Tobacco Control Amendment Act take effect.
The new rule is meant to protect children under 16 from second-hand smoke in vehicles, the provincial government said.
"Children specifically are much more vulnerable to exposure to tobacco smoke than adults because they are still physically developing, so we're just trying to protect our youngest citizens from that exposure," said Nicole Nieminen, senior policy analyst with the Ministry of Health.
The ministry on Friday issued a reminder that the month of October
will also usher in other new tobacco control rules, including: ...
tobacco smoke in used cars: futile efforts and persistent pollutants
Methods: Surface wipe, air, and dust samples were collected in used cars sold by nonsmokers (n = 40) and smokers (n = 87) and analyzed for nicotine. . . .
Discussion: Findings suggest that smokers can prevent their cars from becoming contaminated with residual TSP by reducing or ceasing smoking; however, commonly used cleaning and ventilation methods did not successfully decrease contamination levels. Disclosure requirements and smoke-free certifications could help protect buyers of used cars and empower them to request nonsmoking environments or a discount on cars that have been smoked in previously.
Americans, Britons support tobacco crackdowns
qualitative case study of policy maker views about the protection of
children from smoking in cars
council mulling smoking-in-vehicle ban
What began as an idea proposed by a Washington High School government class could become a reality in the very near future.
Washington C.H. City Council discussed the possibility of a city-wide ban on smoking in cars where small children are present during Wednesday's meeting.
"It's a worthwhile thing," said council chairman Dale Lynch. "And the fact that this is something students came up with - it shows that people can initiate things."
The proposal was first brought up by a group of Washington students from Jon Creamer's AP Government class when they spoke before council on May 12.
The students presented information on similar laws already in place in Arkansas, California, Louisiana and Maine. Currently there are no similar laws - in either state or individual city governments - in the state of Ohio.
Washington C.H. City Council recently took on a controversial topic in a different way last month when it approved a resolution to support a statewide texting while driving ban. In that case, though, state leaders were already crafting a bill - which later passed - to ban texting while driving. ...
motorists who smoke with young kids in their vehicle could ...
LITTLE ROCK, Ark. (AP) Arkansas law enforcement says motorists who smoke while driving with a young child can now be pulled over and given a ticket.
The state Health Department and police said Thursday that smoking while driving with a child younger than 6 or weighing less than 60 pounds can generate a $25 ticket.
Most law enforcement agencies will take a month to warn motorists about the law and the dangers of secondhand smoke. ...
near on smoking in cars
Motorists should not subject children to second-hand tobacco smoke, Hawai'i County Council members decided Tuesday by voting 5-3 to outlaw the practice.
Smoking would be illegal in any motor vehicle occupied by someone less than 18 years old, according to the bill from Puna Councilwoman Emily Naeole-Beason.
The ban is to protect kids, said Naeole-Beason, who has often credited her children for helping her quit smoking.
The measure now goes to Mayor Billy Kenoi, who may choose to sign it into law, allow it to take effect without his approval or veto it.
Kenoi told the Tribune-Herald that he supports the bill's intent of protecting children's health and safety.
"I will look very favorably on it," he said by phone following
the council's action. ...
Bay students arguing for anti-smoking bill
TALLAHASSEE, FL -- Eight Tampa Bay high school students are in Tallahassee today to present an anti-smoking bill they wrote before Florida lawmakers.
The students from Tampa Bay Tech, Durant High School and Bloomingdale High School go before the Senate Transportation Committee to argue their bill that would outlaw smoking in vehicles when children are present.
The students hope to gain enough support that the bill will advance
to the full Senate and pass in a vote. ...
would be banned in all cars, parks and play areas under new proposals
Passive smoking doubles the risk of cot death in babies and toddlers, the Royal College of Physicians said.
Parks, play areas, outdoor swimming pools and all vehicles should be covered by an extension of the existing smoking ban, England's oldest medical institution said.
The proposals, which have won the backing of Sir Liam Donaldson, the Government's Chief Medical Officer, are outlined in a report showing the impact of passive smoking on children's health.
Doctors reported 20,500 cases of lower respiratory tract infections such as bronchitis in children caused directly by passive smoking, the report said. . . .
The report was timed to influence the Government's July review of existing smoking legislation, which came into force in 2007.
The proposals, which were welcomed by the Department of Health, include a call for smoking to be outlawed in all vehicles, rather than just those which contain children, to make the ban easier to enforce. ...
In The Car Could Cost You
The federal government finds developing kids exposed to second-hand smoke are at high risk of having weaker lungs or life-threatening illnesses.
That's why lawmakers could move to slap a $100 fine on drivers caught puffing with a kid under 16 years old in the car.
Smoking is already banned in schools and on playgrounds. Logic follows
the family car ought to be off limits too.
This is going to be a very controversial, hot issue, said Sen. Victor Crist.
The Tampa Republican is backing the bill in the Senate.
By his own admission, the opposition will be tough. But he argues the facts are tougher....
Island bill to ban smoking while kids are in car advances
A bill that would outlaw smoking in any motorized vehicle occupied by a child or young adult was advanced yesterday by a 6-3 vote of a Hawaii County Council committee.
The Human Services and Economic Development Committee's supportive recommendation sends Bill 216 to the full council for the first of two votes required for its passage.
If approved as law, the ban would take effect 90 days later.
Puna Councilwoman Emily Naeole-Beason, the bill's author and a former smoker, said some people have been unfairly critical of her proposal. ...
bill would ban smoking in cars with kids
ST. PAUL, Minn. (AP) - A proposal to ban smoking in cars with kids is back.
The bill from Democratic Rep. Nora Slawik of Maplewood gets a hearing - but not a vote - in a House health panel on Wednesday.
The legislation would prohibit smoking in vehicles where children under
18 years old are present. But law enforcement officers couldn't ticket
for violations unless they pulled the car over for another reason. ...
backs ban on smoking in car with young children
Utah lawmakers on Tuesday passed a proposed ban on smoking in a vehicle in which children are riding.
HB82, sponsored by Rep. Jay Seegmiller, D-Sandy, would bar smoking in the vehicle when a child younger than 8 and requiring a restraining device is present. The proposed penalty is a $45 ticket.
Several lawmakers argued passionately for keeping children from breathing various chemicals in cigarette smoke, and Seegmiller said the children have no other protection.
"This is a tremendously important bill to protect the rights of children who can't speak for themselves," he said. . . .
The bill passed 40-31 and now goes to the Senate. ...
fined for smoking in cars since new laws
MORE than 400 people have been cautioned or fined for smoking in cars with children in South Australia since the controversial law was introduced.
The state led the nation by introducing a law prohibiting smoking in vehicles in the presence of people under 16 in May 2007, in a bid to protect children from passive smoking.
Since then, police have fined 317 people and cautioned 85.
A woman was recently convicted for the offence in NSW just three months after that state brought in the new laws.
bans smoking in cars carrying kids
Queensland motorists who smoke while children are in their cars will be fined from next year.
From January 1, Queensland police will enforce a $200 on-the-spot fine to drivers who smoke with children under 16 in their cars.
Premier Anna Bligh said the laws would protect children from the dangers of passive smoke.
"It is important we protect children who have no choice but to travel in cars with adults and their parents and family members ... where those people don't make the right choices about smoking around them," Ms Bligh told reporters.
She made no apologies for the crackdown. ...
on smoking in vehicles with children
Anyone caught in B.C. smoking in a vehicle with a child present will have to pay a $109 fine.
April of this year, the B.C. Government passed the legislation to enforce a ban on smoking in vehicles when a child under the age of 16 is present last spring under the Motor Vehicle Act.
Healthy living and sport minister Mary Pollack said in a statement regarding the ban, "Any level of second-hand smoke has harmful effects on a child's health, so it's important that we protect vulnerable children who are confined in a vehicle." ...
Calls For Tobacco-Free Environments For All Children
Stubs Out Car Smoking Ban Laws
The Government has ditched plans to ban smoking in cars when children are passengers, Sky News Online can reveal. ...
Britain was considering moves to introduce similar legislation next year as part of its review of 'smoke-free laws' introduced three years ago.
But a spokeswoman for the Department of Health told Sky this has now changed.
"The Government does not have any plans at this point in time to introduce legislation to prohibit smoking in private cars," she said. ...
fine proposed for drivers who smoke with kids in car
Drivers smoking with children in the car would face $100 fines for each child under legislation that got a push in committee Thursday. Rep. Denis Guyers bill (H 3233) imposes fines of at least $100 for each child.
Drivers could duck the fine by performing five hours of community service or taking tobacco education or cessation courses.
Children, who breathe more quickly than adults, are particularly at risk of suffering second-hand smoke side effects, said Dr. Mona Sharifi, a pediatrician at Childrens Hospital. A child sitting in a car for roughly 10 minutes breathes in the equivalent of what a firefighter breathes during hours battling wildfires, she said. Its the one environmental exposure that stands out above the rest, Sharifi said. ...
in vehicles brings higher nicotine exposure
Sharing a ride with a smoker will give you a much heftier dose of nicotine than having a meal in a restaurant that allows smoking or hanging out at a smoky bar, according to new research.
Even opening the window or switching on the air-conditioner when a
smoker lights up leaves significant amounts of nicotine in the air,
according to the study by four researchers at Johns Hopkins University.
"In any case it is clear that ventilation is insufficient to eliminate tobacco smoke," she said.
Nicotine, which is toxic, is the addictive substance in tobacco.
A handful of states, including Arkansas, California and Louisiana, ban smoking in cars when children are passengers. So does Puerto Rico. Beginning next month, Avis Budget Group Inc. will ban smoking in all of its rental cars, citing customers' complaints about tobacco odors and residues.
The Hopkins researchers said their findings were generally in line with recent studies suggesting that smoking two cigarettes a day inside a car leaves the air with about 20 percent more particulate matter than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ceiling for what it considers unpolluted air.
They said the drivers they studied all agreed that smoking posed a health risk to passengers, and that 15 percent would only smoke when they had no passengers in their cars. ...
smoking in cars linked to hayfever and wheezing in children
Children who are regularly exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke when traveling by car have significantly higher rates of hayfever and wheezing than those without such exposure, results of an Irish study show.
Writing in the European Respiratory Journal, Luke Clancy, from the Tobacco Free Research Institute in Dublin, and team explain: Children may be more vulnerable to second-hand smoke-induced respiratory diseases due to smaller airways and greater oxygen demand, as well as a less-mature immune system.
But they add that there is no evidence quantifying second-hand smoke-induced respiratory health effects in children exposed to second-hand smoke in cars.
To address this, the team studied 2809 children, aged 1314 years, selected randomly from schools throughout Ireland. ...
To Restrict Smoking In Private Cars
HELSINKI, Sept 15 (Bernama) -- Finland will soon ban smoking in private vehicles if a child under 18 years old is a passenger in that car, local media reported on Tuesday.
A proposal on the issue will be handed to Finland's Parliament within two weeks. The legislation, which is expected to pass, would make Finland the only European country to regulate smoking in private cars, according to Xinhua news agency's report, citing the local media.
However, no punishments are planned for smokers who break the rule
for the time being. That means smokers can be urged, but not forced,
to stop smoking if a child is in the car. ...
ban in cars closer
A bill banning smoking in cars carrying children has passed the upper house of the West Australian parliament.
The bill was introduced earlier this year by the Independent Mp Janet Woollard.
It will also ban retailers from being able to display tobacco products and prohibits people from smoking in certain parts of alfresco dining areas. ...
support crackdown on bad habits
smoking ban - No smoking in car
ALTHOUGH it may prove impossible to stop people with children from smoking in their homes, it is now officially illegal to smoke in your car if you are travelling with a child under the age of 12.
Enjoying a smoke at a restaurant in the company of your children is
now also illegal, even if you are in a smoking area. Children under
18 years are not even allowed to enter a designated smoking area. ...
Cars Loaded With Nicotine
Passengers riding in the cars of smokers are exposed to nicotine levels nearly twice those found in restaurants and bars that permit smoking, a new study suggests.
The dangers of exposure to secondhand smoke are well known, including
the risk for heart and respiratory disease, and have led to laws banning
smoking in many public places. Many anti-smoking advocates believe the
next frontier in the fight against secondhand smoke is in cars.
Breysse and his co-author Dr. Ana Navas-Acien, an assistant professor
of occupational and environmental health at Hopkins, believe that smoking
should be banned in cars as it has been in other places.
tobacco smoke concentrations in motor vehicles
considers bill to bar smoking in vehicles with kids
After Johns Hopkins University researchers have proven that the amount of harmful nicotine in air-conditioned cars with smokers is much higher than in pubs and restaurants that allow smoking, an MK is considering initiating a bill to bar smoking in vehicles with children as passengers.
Israel Beiteinu MK Robert Ilatov, whose colleague MK Yuri Shtern proposed such legislation three weeks before his death from brain cancer in 2007, told The Jerusalem Post on Monday after learning of the Baltimore study that such a bill would be a fitting memorial to Shtern. He asked to read the study, which was published on Tuesday in the journal Tobacco Control.
Health Ministry associate director-general Dr. Boaz Lev said he personally was very much opposed to smoking in cars containing minors, but that he had not discussed the proposal with Deputy Health Minister Ya'acov Litzman (United Torah Judaism), who decides policy. ...
support ban in cars carrying young children
A study suggests strong support from smokers for a ban on lighting up in cars carrying pre-school children.
The University of Otago study of more than than 1,300 adult smokers found 96% favoured a smoking ban in cars carrying young children.
Lead author Dr George Thompson says support for the ban was consistent across all ethnicities and income-levels.
He says with Parliament currently looking at legislationon the use of cellphones in cars, it's a good opportunity to also consider banning smoking while behind the wheel. ...
call for total ban on smoking in cars
Nearly two thirds of motorists would like to see smoking in cars completely banned according to a new survey by Motorpoint.
The poll by the car supermarket giant found 67% of drivers wanted smokers to extinguish their cigarettes before getting behind the wheel. Some 2,028 people took part in the week-long online study.
Smoking in cars is currently the subject of hot debate after Professor Terence Stephenson, the new president of the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, called for a complete end to smoking in cars with children. ...
to be banned while under-18s are in the car
SMOKING in cars carrying children under 18 will be banned.
"There is no risk-free level of second-hand smoke in confined areas such as cars," he said.
driver gets BC's first ticket for smoking with child in car
RCMP have handed out B.C.'s first ticket to a driver for lighting up with a child in his car.
Police pulled over the man at a roadblock in Langley on Sunday while he was smoking with a 13-year-old in the car.
The driver was slapped with a ticket for $109, as well as a 24-hour suspension for driving under the influence of alcohol. His name was not released by police, and it is not clear if he was eventually charged for drinking and driving. ...
to be banned in cars with kids
Places where smoking is prohibited in NSW will soon include cars, if any of their passengers are under the age of 16.
Billboards and print advertisements will start appearing this weekend to remind drivers and smokers of new government regulations aimed at protecting children from tobacco smoke.
The new laws come into effect on July 1.
"The advertisements will hammer home the message that from July 1, drivers and smokers will be banned from smoking in cars when a child or passenger under the age of 16 is present," Minister assisting the Minister for Health (Cancer) Jodi McKay said in a statement on Saturday.
"Any driver or passenger who is caught violating this new law could attract a $250 on-the-spot fine from NSW Police."
Co. Proposes Smoking Ban in Cars with Kids
Some Cattaraugus County legislators want to make it illegal to light up with kids in the car.
"My main issue is that children don't have a say, especially if they're under six years old. They're strapped in a seat, can't relocate in a car, which wouldn't be good [because there's] smoke in the whole vehicle," said legislator William Sprague, who proposed the smoking ban several weeks ago.
The proposed law passed the human services committee as expected, but it's being held up in the public safety committee as legislators await answers to some of their questions, such as how the law will be enforced and how much the fine will be. ...
is considering a law banning smoking in vehicles with a minor present
Health Minister Yves Bolduc supports a proposal put forward during a provincial Liberal council meeting in Montreal this past weekend.
He brushed off concerns that the eventual legislation could be criticized for trampling on individual rights.
He says lighting up is a choice but inhaling second-hand smoke often isn't. ...
may be restricted more
LITTLE VALLEY - A Cattaraugus County lawmaker wants to prohibit adults from smoking in vehicles carrying children. William Sprague, D-Yorkshire, has introduced a local law that would ban adults from smoking while driving in Cattaraugus County when children are in the vehicle. The proposed local law goes before the Public Safety, Human Services and Finance committees on Wednesday night (May 20).
Ive been thinking about it for a long time, Mr. Sprague said in an interview Monday. I see it all the time.
Second-hand smoke isnt good for anyone, he added, especially young children whose lungs are still developing.
More than 25 years ago, Mr. Sprague first proposed banning smoking in the County Legislature chambers on the third floor of the County Center.
They said it would never pass, he said. It was so blue (from the smoke) in there, you couldnt see. ...
law could ban drivers from smoking with kids in car
BOSTON -- Smokers in vehicles may soon have to "butt out" if kids are in the car.
Representative Denis Guyer is looking to make it illegal for parents to smoke with children under the age of 18 in the car.
The law is aimed at protecting kids from the dangers of
secondhand smoke. ...
Experimental Investigation of Tobacco Smoke Pollution in Cars
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) has been identified as a serious public health threat. Although the number of jurisdictions that prohibit smoking in public places has increased rapidly, just a few successful attempts have been made to pass similar laws prohibiting smoking in cars, where the cabin space may contribute to concentrated exposure. In particular, TSP constitutes a potentially serious health hazard to children because of prolonged exposure and their small size. METHODS: The present study investigated the levels of TSP in 18 cars via the measurement of fine respirable particles (<2.5 microns in diameter or PM(2.5)) under a variety of in vivo conditions. Car owners smoked a single cigarette in their cars in each of five controlled air-sampling conditions. Each condition varied on movement of the car, presence of air conditioning, open windows, and combinations of these airflow influences. RESULTS: Smoking just a single cigarette in a car generated extremely high average levels of PM(2.5): more than 3,800 mug/m(3) in the condition with the least airflow (motionless car, windows closed). In moderate ventilation conditions (air conditioning or having the smoking driver hold the cigarette next to a half-open window), the average levels of PM(2.5) were reduced but still at significantly high levels (air conditioning = 844 mug/m(3); holding cigarette next to a half-open window = 223 mug/m(3)). DISCUSSION: This study demonstrates that TSP in cars reaches unhealthy levels, even under realistic ventilation conditions, lending support to efforts occurring across a growing number of jurisdictions to educate people and prohibit smoking in cars in the presence of children.
harmed by smoke in cars
Irish doctors claim they have found evidence that exposure to "second-hand smoke" in cars is damaging children's health.
Their study isolated the effects of passive smoking in cars and found it gives rise to significant respiratory symptoms in children. Those exposed to cigarette smoke had a 35% increased risk of having wheeze symptoms and a 30% higher risk of hay fever.
"This paper is the first to isolate exposure in cars as distinct from the children smoking themselves and from exposure at home," said Luke Clancy, the director general of the Research Institute for a Tobacco Free Society, and one of the study's authors.
"We find second-hand smoke in cars does give rise to significant symptoms in these children. People say they're only going down the road to school and 'how do we know that it's actually doing any harm?'. This says, 'yes it is'."
Clancy, a respiratory consultant, claims the findings support calls for a ban on smoking in cars similar to the workplace ban.
hand smoke exposure in cars and respiratory health effects in children
may ban smoking in cars with children present
MONTREAL - The Quebec government is considering banning smoking in cars when children under age 16 are present, an aide to Quebec Health Minister Yves Bolduc says.
Marie-Eve Bedard said Tuesday that Bolduc is ``particularly favourable'' to such a measure, which wouldn't take effect until May 2010, by which time the current anti-tobacco law is to have been reviewed and updated.
Bolduc is meeting with public health officials this week to review the anti- tobacco law and its application before deciding what new measures might be added, she said.
``This is a tool that is being used in other provinces,''
she said. ``It's a question of seeing how this would be applied, since
the car is considered a private space. It might require changes to legislation,
but if we can improve the health of people we'll do it. That's the aim
of the anti-tobacco law.''
banning smoking in cars carrying children passes House
SALEM Oregon could become the fifth state in the nation where smoking in a car with children on board could result in a traffic ticket.
The House on Wednesday passed House Bill 2385, which creates the offense of smoking in a motor vehicle with a person under age 17 also in the vehicle. Those convicted a first time could be fined up to $90. Second-time offenders could be fined up to $180, and someone cited a third time could be hit with a fine of up to $360.
The bill passed on a largely partisan vote, 35-25, with most Democrats backing it and most Republicans in opposition. Lane County representatives followed party lines. ...
Vote on Smoking Ban
Smokers are banned from lighting up in many public places but they'll be able to continue to smoking in their vehicles...
The North Dakota House voted to defeat a bill to ban smoking in cars when children under the age of 16 are in the vehicle.
It would have been a $50 fine.
Fines For Drivers Smoking With Kids In The Car
For now, there will be no fines for Tennessee drivers smoking with children in the car, as two proposals with that aim failed in Nashville.
One bill was withdrawn from consideration in the House General Subcommittee of Agriculture on Wednesday, and the other failed for lack of a motion.
to ban smoking in cars with kids
FREDERICTON - The provincial government is going to pass a law making it illegal to smoke in vehicles carrying children, the Times & Transcript has learned.
Health Minister Mike Murphy confirmed he will make an announcement this afternoon to outline legislation that would ban New Brunswickers from smoking in cars with children under the age of 16.
"Secondary smoke has been proven as a cause of illness amongst children and adults," said Murphy.
The ban will also promote public awareness of the dangers of smoking, said Murphy.
The provincial government doesn't plan to hire anyone to
enforce the ban, he said, adding it's simply another ticketable offence
that peace officers will oversee.
Co. bans smoking in car with kids
BLOOMINGTON, Ind. The Monroe County commissioners have approved an expansion of the countys smoking ban to prohibit smoking in vehicles carrying children.
Commissioners voted 2-1 in favor of the ban at a meeting today, one day after the countys Board of Health unanimously recommended the move.
The ordinance will carry a fine of $100 for a person caught
smoking in a vehicle carrying a child age 13 or younger. Police officers
would not be able to stop a car just to enforce the ordinance.
for smoke ban in cars containing children
The ACT Government will push to ban smoking in cars where children are present after it received strong support from the community.
ACT Health received 48 submissions in relation to managing
smoking in cars where children under 16 are present, with three-quarters
of respondents supporting a ban. ...
House Kills Ban on Smoking in Car With Kids
The New Hampshire House rejected a ban on smoking in the car with kids because it is a violation of the adults' civil liberties.
Critics of the bill also said not smoking around children is common sense and should not be legislated.
But supporters argued the safety of children and their civil rights trump the rights of adults.
County could ban smoking in cars with kids
BLOOMINGTON, Ind. - The Monroe County Board of Health is considering a proposal to prohibit smoking in vehicles carrying children.
The board will hold a public forum Thursday in Bloomington and county commissioners will consider the proposal on Friday.
House to vote on smoking ban in cars with kids
CONCORD, N.H. (AP) - New Hampshire legislators will debate a proposed ban on smoking in cars with young passengers this week.
The bill's critics say the state shouldn't infringe on the adult drivers' use of their private property. They say not smoking around children is common sense but should not be legislated.
Supporters of the bill say keeping children safe and protecting their civil rights trumps the rights of drivers. They say children have no defense against second-hand smoke in confined places.
introduced for second hand smoking in cars
The BC government has set $109, as the fine, for those caught smoking in vehicles with children under the age of 16.
That's the same as the province's booster seat fine and, failure to pay, will result in a refusal to issue, both a driver's licence and auto insurance.
The new regulations are set to go into effect on April 7th, which is World Health Day. Healthy Living and Sport Minister Mary Polak says, "Any level of second hand smoke has harmful effect on a child's health and, it's important for the government to help them get the best and healthiest start in life".
want to fine drivers who smoke with kids in car
in cars with kids illegal, under bill
Motorists who light up in the car with passengers 10 and under would be subject to a fine of up to $100, according tot a bill that passed a Senate Committee Wednesday.
The bill, which passed the Senate last year and died in the House, would allow law enforcement to pose a fine when there is clear evidence a someone has been smoking in a car with young children.
The bill's chief sponsor, Sen. Darrell Jackson, D-Richland, said the bill is intended to protect children from second-hand smoke.
The bill is still expected to have opposition in the House.
Some members who helped kill the bill last year saw it as a slippery slope
that would begin to ban smoking in private venues.
on Smoking with a Child in the Car Gets Second Wind
Legislators narrowly approved a bill yesterday to prohibit adults from smoking in a car if a child seven or younger is inside, after voting against it on Friday. Bill Sponsor Jay Seegmiller said after the bill failed last week, he worked hard to convince House Transportation Committee members of its merits, but it was their constituents that swayed legislators to reconsider the proposal. However, a representative from the Utah Eagle Forum, Michelle Seegmiller, argued the bill is not the way to solve the underlying problem.
"A person's home is private property, a car is private property, we see some enforcement issues with this bill. There are many ways that you can educate the public on this issue and you can allow people to regulate themselves," Seegmiller said.
Ban Expansion Passes NM Senate
California, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Maine are four states in the nation that have outlawed smoking in cars with kids.
Now, Minnesota and New Mexico might join them.
The New Mexico state Senate voted to pass a bill that would expand the states smoking ban to cars, if kids are present.
Smoking is bad it can kill you, said Desert Hills Elementary School student Jordan Olivas.
As kids get into the car after school, the last thing they want to worry about is dying of second hand smoke. Olivas said he has never had to deal with it.
Nuh uh, but I wouldn't like to, he said.
Members of the New Mexico Legislature hope that kids don't
have to worry about it too. The Senate just passed a bill that would expand
New Mexico's smoking ban from public enclosed spaces to cars that have
ban may expand to vehicles
Smoking a cigarette in a car when children are along for the ride may soon be illegal in New Mexico.
A bill that would expand New Mexico's indoor smoking ban is now half-way to becoming law.
The fines would be the same as they are for businesses that let people smoke inside, starting at $100 and topping off at $300 for repeat offenders.
The well-known dangers of second-hand smoke propelled the bill through the Senate after a lively debate...
Smoking, cars and kids
Lawmaking gets a bad rap, and we all know of a bill that seems to be a fix in search of a problem. But the act of discussing and debating an idea can educate the public on a subject that hasn't fully taken hold.
We hope the attempt to ban smoking in cars where children
are riding falls into the category of 'legislation-as-education.'' The
bill is to have its first hearing today in a committee of the Minnesota
Getting parents and caretakers to stop smoking when young lungs are present is an important goal, and we support it. We think this law, as written, would have the effect of driving home the message without nailing drivers with a lot of tickets and fines. We admit that it raises equally good questions about the reach of government into our private lives. . . .
Many of us who would accept a no-smoking-with-kids rule for the car would be nervous about a similar law for the home. At some point, legislation must give way to education. We think this bill could do both -- protect those vulnerable breathers strapped into the back seats and stimulate the widest possible public discussion about the dangers of exposing growing lungs to secondhand smoke anywhere.
bill would ban smoking in cars with minors
A lawmaker wants Arkansas to ban smoking in any car that has a passenger younger than 18.
Rep. Fred Allen, D-Little Rock, on Tuesday proposed expanding a state law that bans smoking in cars that have a child who is less than six years old, weighs less than 60 pounds and is in a car seat.
The smoking restriction passed in an April 2006 special
session that was primarily devoted to education funding, though the Legislature
also passed a workplace smoking ban then. California, Maine and Louisiana
have passed similar laws.
Senate OKs Bill Barring Smoking With Kids In Car
People who smoke with a minor in the car would face a $100 fine under a bill passed by the Senate. The Senate voted 30-10 Tuesday in favor of Sen. Ralph Northam's bill.
Senate Bans Smoking in Car With Children
lawmakers consider smoking ban in cars
A proposed law would carry a $90 fine for the first offense and a $360 penalty the third time an adult is caught blowing smoke in a vehicle with anyone younger than 17 in the front or back seat.
The proposed law got its first public hearing Friday as legislators, physicians and public health officials agreed the state must protect children's health.
ban on smoking in cars with kids takes effect
A new Ontario law comes into effect Wednesday that makes it illegal to smoke in a motor vehicle in the presence of a child under age 16.
The Smoke-Free Ontario Act applies to drivers and passengers and to both moving and stationary vehicle, regardless of whether windows, sunroofs or doors are open.
The Ministry of Health says violations carry fines of up to $250 and will be enforced by police.
"This new law will protect children and youth, who are more vulnerable to the effects of second-hand smoke," said Dr. Elizabeth Richardson, medical officer of health for the City of Hamilton.
bills on the floor for Thursday
in vehicles puts childrens health at risk
could ban smoking in cars with children
A member of the Tobacco Advisory Board of Pierce County, Leonard Sanderson, told The Olympian the proposal would make it a secondary offense, meaning smoking drivers could be ticketed if they were pulled over for another offense, such as speeding.
Four other states have outlawed smoking in cars with children:
California, Arkansas, Louisiana and Maine. A similar bill died in last
year's session of the Washington Legislature.
smoking-in-vehicles law starts today
Maine today joins other states and Canadian provinces that have made it illegal to smoke in a car while children are present. But for the first year the law is in effect, violators will only get warnings.
A law passed by the Legislature earlier this year outlaws smoking in cars while youths under 16 are present. It's modeled after a tougher Bangor ordinance. California, Arkansas and Louisiana have passed similar laws, as have Puerto Rico and some Canadian provinces. Other states have also looked at the proposal.
When he signed Maine's bill into law in April, Gov. John Baldacci hailed the legislation as a strike against secondhand smoke, saying that tobacco use costs too many lives and too much money.
smoking in cars to the test
California demonstration promotes the state's new ban on tobacco use in cars with minors.
Smoking a cigarette in a car makes the air inside 10 to 30 times more toxic than the air outdoors on one of Southern California's most polluted days.
On Thursday, state officials put on a live demonstration of that health hazard to promote a new law that bans smoking in cars carrying minors.
Neil Klepeis, a Stanford University environmental health scientist, attached sensors to the dashboard of a 1999 Toyota Corolla parked on the lot of the Hollywood United Methodist Church. He attached additional sensors to a child safety seat in the back.
researchers measure secondhand smoke concentrations in automobiles
It's Labor Day weekend and you have packed the family into the car for the two-hour drive to grandma's house. Because of the heat, you crank the AC and keep the windows closed. The problem is you are a smoker and after just two cigarettes you will have exposed your spouse and kids to particulates at a level well above government safety standards. That's the bottom-line finding of measurements recently published by engineering researchers at Stanford University.
"This is the most comprehensive set of measurements ever made of vehicle air change rates and smoke particulate levels in real driving conditions," says Neil Klepeis, a consulting professor of civil and environmental engineering (CEE) at Stanford. Klepeis co-authored the study published online July 18 in the Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology. "Conditions in a car with a smoker can vary widely, but in some situations we can confirm that passengers will receive an exposure to secondhand smoke that is considered unhealthful."
Co-author Wayne Ott, also a CEE consulting professor who worked for decades as a scientist at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), noted that legislation banning smoking in cars with children present passed in Arkansas last year and has been considered in seven other states. ..
City Bans Smoking in Cars with Children
Bangor is banning smoking in cars if children are present, and Ms. Henderson, 24, is accustomed to having a cigarette when her boyfriend's 7-year-old daughter is in the back seat.
She is just the kind of person City Council members had in mind when they passed the ordinance, which has delighted some and angered others and prompted complaints about invasion of privacy and even threats to boycott the city, Maine's second-largest. The ordinance, which takes effect on Jan. 19, allows the police to stop cars if an adult is smoking while a child under 18 is a passenger. The smoker can be fined $50.
"I've heard people say it's the smoke police or the Gestapo," said Mayor Richard D. Greene, a pack-a-day smoker who says he shields his two children from his cigarette fumes. "I think it boils down to common sense: smoking is not good for you. Certainly if you have young children who are in the process of developing and growing, it's even worse for them. You wouldn't say, 'Hey, here's a bottle of mercury. Go bob it around.' "
|Smokefree News | Related Research|
|Montreuil, A.; Hanusaik, N.; Cantinotti, M.; Leclerc, B.S.; Kestens, Y.; Tremblay, M.; Cohen, J.; McGrath, J.; Datta, G.D.; O'Loughlin, J.L., "Social disparities in children's exposure to secondhand smoke in privately owned vehicles," Tobacco Control [Epub ahead of print], October 28, 2016.|
|Kruger, J.; Jama, A.; Kegler, M.; Baker Holmes, C.; Hu, S.; King, B., "Smoke-free rules and secondhand smoke exposure in vehicles among U.S. adults-national adult tobacco survey, 2009-2010 and 2013-2014," International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13(11): 1048, October 26, 2016.|
|Elton-Marshall, T.; Leatherdale, S.T.; Driezen, P.; Azagba, S.; Burkhalter, R., "Do provincial policies banning smoking in cars when children are present impact youth exposure to secondhand smoke in cars?," Preventive Medicine 78: 59-64, September 2015.|
|Montreuil, A.; Tremblay, M.; Cantinotti, M.; Leclerc, B.S.; Lasnier, B.; Cohen, J.; McGrath, J.; O'Loughlin, J., "Frequency and risk factors related to smoking in cars with children present," Canadian Journal of Public Health 106(6): e369-e74, June 24, 2015.|
|Zhang, X.; Martinez-Donate, A.; Rhoads, N., "Parental practices and attitudes related to smoke-free rules in homes, cars, and outdoor playgrounds in US households with underage children and smokers, 2010-2011," Preventing Chronic Disease 12: E96, June 18, 2015.|
|Kruger, J.; Jama, A.; Homa, D.M.; Babb, S.D.; King, B.A., "Smoke-free home and vehicle rules by tobacco use status among U.S. adults," Preventative Medicine [Epub ahead of print], June 16, 2015.|
|Raoof, S.A.; Agaku, I.T.; Vardavas, C.I., "A systematic review of secondhand smoke exposure in a car: attributable changes in atmospheric and biological markers," Chronic Respiratory Disease [Epub ahead of print], March 10, 2015.|
|Nguyen, K.H.; King, B.A.; Dube, S.R.. "Association between current asthma and secondhand smoke exposure in vehicles among adults living in four US states," Tobacco Control [Epub ahead of print], May 2, 2014.|
|Jones, I.A.; St. Helen, G.; Meyers, M.J.; Dempsey, D.A.; Havel, C.; Jacob, III, P.; Northcross, A.; Hammond, S.K.; Benowitz, N.L., "Biomarkers of secondhand smoke exposure in automobiles," Tobacco Control 23(1): 51-57, January 2014.|
|Northcross, A.L.; Trinh, M.; Kim, J.; Jones, I.A.; Meyers, M.J.; Dempsey, D.D.; Benowitz, N.L.; Hammond, S.K., "Particulate mass and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure from secondhand smoke in the back seat of a vehicle," Tobacco Control 23(1): 14-20, January 2014.|
McIntire, R.K.; Macy, J.T.; Seo, D.C.; Nelson, A.A.; Kolbe, L.J., "Secondhand smoke exposure in cars and rooms: trend comparisons among subpopulations of nonsmoking U.S. middle and high school students," Nicotine and Tobacco Research 16(6): 663-671, June 2014.
|Murphy-Hoefer, R.; Madden, P.; Maines, D.; Coles, C., "Prevalence of smoke-free car and home rules in Maine before and after passage of a smoke-free vehicle law, 2007-2010," Preventing Chronic Disease 11: E08, 2014.|
|McIntire, R.K.; Macy, J.T.; Seo, D.C.; Nelson, A.A.; Kolbe, L.J., "Secondhand smoke exposure in cars and in rooms: trend comparisons among subpopulations of nonsmoking U.S. middle and high school students," Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Epub ahead of print], December 24, 2013.|
|Rowa-Dewar, N.; Amos, A.; Cunningham-Burley, S., "Children's resistance to parents' smoking in the home and car: a qualitative study," Addiction [Epub ahead of print], December 4, 2013.|
|Woods, P., "Protect children from second-hand smoke in cars," Nursing Times 109(44): 11, November 6, 2013|
|Cheng, K.; Okechukwu, C.A.; McMillen, R.; Glantz, S.A., "Association between clean indoor air laws and voluntary smokefree rules in homes and cars," Tobacco Control [Epub ahead of print], October 10, 2013.|
|Healey, B.; Hoek, J.; Wilson, N.; Thomson, G., "Youth exposure to in-vehicle second-hand smoke and their smoking behaviours: trends and associations in repeated national surveys (2006-2012)," Tobacco Control [Epub ahead of print], September 17, 2013.|
|Glover, M.; Hadwen, G.; Chelimo, C.; Scragg, R.; Bullen, C.; Gentles, D.; Nosa, V.; McCool, J., "Parent versus child reporting of tobacco smoke exposure at home and in the car," New Zealand Medical Journal 126(1375): 37-47, May 31, 2013.|
|King, B.A.; Dube, S.R.; Homa, D.M., "Smoke-free rules and secondhand smoke exposure in homes and vehicles among US adults, 2009-2010," Preventing Chronic Disease 10: E79, May 16, 2013.|
|Matt, G.E.; Fortmann, A.L.; Quintana, P.J.E.; Zakarian, J.M.; Romero, R.A.; Chatfield, D.A.; Hoh, E.; Hovell, M.F., "Towards smoke-free rental cars: an evaluation of voluntary smoking restrictions in California," Tobacco Control 22(3): 201-207, May 2013.|
|Martinez-Sanchez, J.M.; Blanch, C.; Fu, M.; Gallus, S.; La Vecchia, C.; Fernandez, E., "Do smoke-free policies in work and public places increase smoking in private venues?," Tobacco Control [Epub ahead of print], April 25, 2013.|
|Gilroy, I.; Donnelly, N.; Matthews, W.; Doherty, K.; Conlon, G.; Clarke, A.T.; Daly, L.; Kelleher, C.; Fitzpatrick, P., "Smoking in vehicles is lower than mobile telephone use while driving, but is socially patterned," Irish Medical Journal 106(4): 118-120, April 2013.|
|Quintana, P.J.; Matt, G.E.; Chatfield, D.; Zakarian, J.M.; Fortmann, A.L.; Hoh, E., "Wipe sampling for nicotine as a marker of thirdhand tobacco smoke contamination on surfaces in homes, cars, and hotels," Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Epub ahead of print], March 4, 2013.|
|Patel, V.; Thomson, G.; Wilson, N., "Objective measurement of area differences in 'private' smoking behaviour: observing smoking in vehicles," Tobacco Control 22(2): 130-135, March 2013.|
|Patel, V.; Nowostawski, M.; Thomson, G.; Wilson, N.; Medlin, H., "Developing a smartphone 'app' for public health research: the example of measuring observed smoking in vehicles," Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health [Epub ahead of print], February 26, 2013.|
|Healey, B.; Edwards, R.; Wilson, N.; Thomson, G.; Hoek, J.; Taylor, S., "The important persisting problem of smoking in cars with children: new data from a multi-year national survey of young people," New Zealand Medical Journal 126(1369): 86-89, February 15, 2013.|
|Nguyen, H.V., "Do smoke-free car laws work? Evidence from a quasi-experiment," Journal of Health Economics 32(1): 138-148, January 2013.|
|Vardavas, C.I.; Anagnostopoulos, N.; Kougias, M.; Evangelopoulou, V.; Connolly, G.N.; Behrakis, P.K. , "Acute pulmonary effects of sidestream secondhand smoke at simulated car concentrations," Xenobiotica [Epub ahead of print], December 4, 2012.|
|Nabi-Burza, E.; Regan, S.; Drehmer, J.; Ossip, D.; Rigotti, N.; Hipple, B.; Dempsey, J.; Hall, N.; Friebely, J.; Weiley, V.; Winickoff, J.P., "Parents smoking in their cars with children present," Pediatrics [Epub ahead of print], November 12, 2012.|
|Semple, S.; Apsley, A.; Galea, K.S.; MacCalman, L. Friel, B.; Snelgrove, V., "Secondhand smoke in cars: assessing children's potential exposure during typical journey conditions," Tobacco Control 21(6): 578-583, November 1, 2012.|
|King, B.A.; Dube, S.R.; Tynan, M.A., "Secondhand smoke exposure in cars among middle and high school students: United States, 20002009," Pediatrics [Epub ahead of print], February 6, 2012.|
|Semple, S.; Apsley, A.; Galea, K.S.; Friel, B.; Snelgrove, V.; MacCalman, L., "Secondhand smoke in cars: assessing children's potential exposure during typical journey conditions," Tobacco Control [Epub ahead of print], January 17, 2012.|
|Cao, Y.; Frey, H.C., "Modeling of human exposure to in-vehicle PM(2.5) from environmental tobacco smoke," Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 18(3): 608-626, January 1, 2012.|
|Temple, B.; Johnson, J., "Provision of smoke-free homes and vehicles for kindergarten children: associated factors," Journal of Pediatric Nursing 26(6):e69-78, December 2011.|
|[n.a.], "Smoking in vehicles," British Medical Association (BMA) Board of Science, November 2011.|
|Curto, A.; Martinez-Sanchez, J.M.; Fernandez, E., "Tobacco consumption and secondhand smoke exposure in vehicles: a cross-sectional study," BMJ Open Access 1:e1-7, 2011.|
|Cartmell, K.B.; Miner, C.; Carpenter, M.J.; Vitoc, C.S.; Biggers, S.; Onicescu, G.; Nickerson, B.C.; Hill, E.G.; Alberg, A.J., "Secondhand smoke exposure in young people and parental rules against smoking at home and in the car," Public Health Reports 126(4): 575-582, July/August, 2011.|
|Cao, Y.; Frey, H.C., "Assessment of interindividual and geographic variability in human exposure to fine particulate matter in environmental tobacco smoke," Risk Analysis [Epub ahead of print], October 29, 2010.|
|Thomson, G.; Hudson, S.; Wilson, N.; Edwards, R., "A qualitative case study of policy maker views about the protection of children from smoking in cars," Nicotine and Tobacco Research 12(2): 970-977, September 2010.|
|Fortmann, A.L.: Romero, R.A.; Sklar, M.; Pham, V.; Zakarian, J.; Quintada, P.J.E.; Chatfield, D.; Matt, G.E., " Residual tobacco smoke in used cars: futile efforts and persistent pollutants," Nicotine and Tobacco Research [Epub ahead of print], August 30, 2010.|
|Hitchman, S.C.; Fong, G.T.; Zanna, M.P.; Hyland, A.; Bansal-Travers, M., "Support and correlates of support for banning smoking in cars with children: findings from the ITC Four Country Survey," European Journal of Public Health [Epub ahead of print], July 14, 2010.|
|Liu, S.; Zhu, Y., "A case study of exposure to ultrafine particles from secondhand tobacco smoke in an automobile," Indoor Air [Epub ahead of print], May 11, 2010.|
|Hitchman, S.C.; Fong, G.T.; Borland, R.; Hyland, A., "Predictors of smoking in cars with nonsmokers: findings from the 2007 wave of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey," Nicotine and Tobacco Research 12(4): 374-380, April 2010.|
Tapp, D.; Thomson, G., "Smokefree cars in New Zealand: rapid research among stakeholders on attitudes and future directions, New Zealand Medical Journal 122(1303): 54-66, September 25, 2009.
|Kabir, Z.; Manning, P.J.; Holohan, J.; Keogan, S.; Goodman, P.G.; Clancy, L., "Second hand smoke exposure in cars and respiratory health effects in children," European Respiratory Journal 34(3): 629-633, September 2009.|
|Jones, M.R.; Navas-Acien, A.; Yuan, J.; Breysse, P.N., "Secondhand tobacco smoke concentrations in motor vehicles," Tobacco Control [Epub ahead of print], August 25, 2009.|
|Sendzik, T.; Fong, G.T.; Travers, M.J.; Hyland, A., "An experimental investigation of tobacco smoke pollution in cars," Nicotine and Tobacco Research 11(6): 627-634, June 2009.|
|Thomson, G.; Wilson, N., "Public attitudes to laws for smokefree private vehicles: a brief review," Tobacco Control [Epub ahead of print], December 3, 2008.|
Matt, G.E.; Quintana, P.J.; Hovell, M.F.; Chatfield, D.; Ma, D.S.; Romero, R.; Uribe, A., "Residual tobacco smoke pollution in used cars for sale: air, dust, and surfaces," Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 10(9): 1467-1475, September 2008.
|Leatherdale, S.T.; Smith, P.; Ahmed, R., "Youth exposure to smoking in the home and in cars: how often does it happen and what do youth think about it?," Tobacco Control 17(2): 86-92, April 1, 2008.|
|Crozier Kegler, M.; Escoffery, C.; Butler, S., "A qualitative study on establishing and enforcing smoking rules in family cars," Nicotine and Tobacco Research 10(3): 493-497, March 2008.|
|Sendzik, T.; Fong, G.T.; Travers, M.J.; Hyland, A., "An experimental investigation of tobacco smoke pollution in cars," Toronto, ON: Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, March 2008.|
|Freeman, B.; Chapman, S.; Storey, P., "Banning smoking in cars carrying children: an analytical history of a public health advocacy campaign," Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 32(1): 60-65, 2008.|
Sly, P.D.; Deverell, M.; Kusel, M.M.; Holt, P.G., "Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in cars increases the risk of persistent wheeze in adolescents," Medical Journal of Australia 186(6): 322, March 19, 2007.
|Rees, V.W.; Connolly, G., "Measuring air quality to protect children from secondhand smoke in cars," American Journal of Preventive Medicine 31(5): 363-368, November 2006.|
Edwards, R.; Wilson, N.; Pierse, N., "Highly hazardous air quality associated with smoking in cars: New Zealand pilot study," New Zealand Medical Journal 119(1244), October 2006.
Martin, J.; George, R.; Andrews, K.; Barr, P.; Bicknell, D.; Insull, E.; Knox, C.; Liu, J.; Naqshband, M.; Romeril, K.; Wong, D.; Thomson, G.; Wilson, N., "Observed smoking in cars: a method and differences by socioeconomic area," Tobacco Control 15(5): 409-411, October 2006.
Halterman, J.S.; Fagnano, M.; Conn, K.M.; Szilagyi, P.G., "Do parents of urban children with persistent asthma ban smoking in their homes and cars?," Ambulatory Pediatrics 6(2): 115-119, March 2006.
Thomson, G.; Wilson, N.; Howden-Chapman, P., "Attitudes to, and knowledge of, secondhand smoke in New Zealand homes and cars," New Zealand Medical Journal 118(1213), April 15, 2005.