Schick, S.; Glantz, S., "Philip Morris toxicological experiments with fresh sidestream smoke: more toxic than mainstream smoke," Tobacco Control 14(6): 396-404, December 1, 2005.
This study examined tobacco industry internal documents, which included in vivo research conducted for Philip Morris (PM) in the 1980s by the Institute fur Industrielle und Biologische Forschung GmbH (INBIFO) in Germany, to determine the health effects of sidestream cigarette smoke.
After reviewing documents describing the industry research, the authors concluded, "Inhaled fresh sidestream cigarette smoke is approximately four times more toxic per gram total particulate matter (TPM) than mainstream cigarette smoke. Sidestream condensate is approximately three times more toxic per gram and two to six times more tumourigenic per gram than mainstream condensate by dermal application. The gas/vapour phase of sidestream smoke is responsible for most of the sensory irritation and respiratory tract epithelium damage. Fresh sidestream smoke inhibits normal weight gain in developing animals. In a 21day exposure, fresh sidestream smoke can cause damage to the respiratory epithelium at concentrations of 2 µg/l TPM. Damage to the respiratory epithelium increases with longer exposures. The toxicity of whole sidestream smoke is higher than the sum of the toxicities of its major constituents."
The authors stated that, "Smoke-free public places and workplaces are the only practical way to protect the public health from the toxins in sidestream smoke."